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Emil Fischer (full name: Hermann Emil Fischer) was born at October 9th, 1852, in Flamerheim (near Euskirchen). Grown up  as the only son (besides five younger sisters)  he passed his high school dipoma in 1869. From 1871 on Emil Fischer studied chemistry at the University of Bonn. In 1874 he received his PhD for his work on the acylation of phenolphthaleinic dyestuffs (doctoral advisor: Adolf von Baeyer). Upon achieving his Dr.  Habilitus (1878)  for his work in the field of hydrazinic compounds he became professor for analytic chemistry in Munich (1879). Towards his interstations in Erlangen (1882-1888) and Würzburg (1888-1892) he relocated to Berlin in 1892.  Here he remained until his death in 1919.

Some of his most important contributions to chemistry are the elucidation of the structure of glucose, the Fischer-Indol-Synthesis (1883) and the implementation of the "Schlüssel-Schloss-Prinzip" (1894). He synthesized diethylbarbituricacid (Veronal), which was used as a hypnotic. The derivatives of this compound are still of commercial importance. The Fischer-Nomenclature is named after Emil Fischer.

Emil Fischer was honored with the Nobel price in 1902 for his work on Sugars and Purines.

His introductive lectures in organic chemistry have been processed to a textbook by Hans Beyer, one of his former students. The "Lehrbuch für Organische Chemie" ist still a well accepted book for the studies. 

Named after Emil Fischer are:
The Emil-Fischer secondery schools in Euskirchen and Schwarzheide, the Emil-Fischer-Street (Leverkusen, Leuna), the Emil Fischer Graduate School  and the Emil Fischer Center, both located in Erlangen.

The "Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker" awards the Emil-Fischer-Medal for extraordinary credits in the field of organic chemistry.

Source:
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Fischer
http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1902/fischer-bio.html